Problem Solving Ability
Of the questions posed in the problem solving and logical thinking portion of the prestudy instrument, questions 11 and 9 (p≤0.01), as well as questions 7, 12 and 4 (p≤0.05) showed the strongest correlations with academic performance (Table 7). Conversely, problems 1 and 8, 2, 3, 5 and 10 showed almost no correlation at all.
Table 7: Spearman Rho Correlation Matrix between Problem Solving Questions and Academic Performance


Problem 2 
Problem 3 
Problem 4 
Problem 5 
Problem 6 
Problem 7 
Problem 9 
Problem 10 
Problem 11 
Problem 12 
Academic Performance 
Problems 1 & 8 
Correlation Coefficient 
.180 
.240 
.377(*) 
.049 
.147 
.103 
.165 
.196 
.053 
.094 
.097 

Sig. (1tailed) 
.150 
.082 
.013 
.391 
.200 
.279 
.172 
.129 
.380 
.295 
.289 
Problem 2 
Correlation Coefficient 

.125 
.059 
.111 
.076 
.053 
.232 
.153 
.167 
.139 
.000 

Sig. (1tailed) 

.237 
.368 
.263 
.332 
.380 
.090 
.190 
.169 
.212 
.500 
Problem 3 
Correlation Coefficient 


.141 
.257 
.249 
.240 
.101 
.000 
.000 
.186 
.202 

Sig. (1tailed) 


.209 
.068 
.075 
.082 
.283 
.500 
.500 
.143 
.122 
Problem 4 
Correlation Coefficient 



.083 
.061 
.245 
.586(**) 
.144 
.354(*) 
.066 
.320(*) 

Sig. (1tailed) 



.319 
.364 
.078 
.000 
.204 
.019 
.354 
.030 
Problem 5 
Correlation Coefficient 




.117 
.310(*) 
.042 
.200 
.093 
.139 
.136 

Sig. (1tailed) 




.251 
.035 
.405 
.125 
.297 
.213 
.218 
Problem 6 
Correlation Coefficient 





.260 
.061 
.307(*) 
.298(*) 
.245 
.273 

Sig. (1tailed) 





.065 
.363 
.036 
.041 
.078 
.056 
Problem 7 
Correlation Coefficient 






.447(**) 
.131 
.187 
.253 
.388(*) 

Sig. (1tailed) 






.004 
.227 
.141 
.071 
.011 
Problem 9 
Correlation Coefficient 







.123 
.452(**) 
.182 
.481(**) 

Sig. (1tailed) 







.241 
.003 
.148 
.002 
Problem 10 
Correlation Coefficient 








.117 
.038 
.014 

Sig. (1tailed) 








.252 
.414 
.468 
Problem 11 
Correlation Coefficient 









.248 
.531(**) 

Sig. (1tailed) 









.076 
.001 
Problem 12 
Correlation Coefficient 










.345(*) 

Sig. (1tailed) 










.021 
* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1tailed).
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1tailed).