Rule Based Deduction
This group of problems is solved by applying the provided or implied rules to arrive at a solution. Their challenge often stems from the thinker’s ability to parse the semantics of the problem, thereby isolating the relevant facts or rules. For example, in problem 12, the floor allocation problem, the thinker would go through each set of rules against the proposed options and discard an option when and if a rule is found to be violated. Similarly problem 4 can be solved using simple algebra but does involve a two part thought process similar to the disjunctive problems. The card problems in question 6 use the rules of logical inference to identify which cards to turn over however these rules may not be as well known to first year students as the rules of algebra. Problem 12 was strongly correlated with academic performance (p=0.021), and problem 4 had a slightly weaker correlation with p=0.03; problem 6 had a much weaker correlation (0.273, p=0.056).